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Ubuntu

A Quick Ubuntu Terminal Commands Cheatsheet

Working a Linux terminal for the first time can be daunting, but once you’re familiar with the basic commands and command types, you’ll soon become familiar enough to work without a cheat sheet.

Until that day, here’s a look at all of the basic Ubuntu Linux commands that you need to know.

On a Ubuntu 18.04 installation you can find a launcher for terminal by clicking on the Activities item at the top left of the screen, then typing the first few letters of “terminal”, “command”, “prompt” or “shell” or hit the keyboard shortcut CtrlAlt+T.

ubuntu terminal

Must-Know Basic Commands for Beginners

sudo

sudo is a command and abbreviation of ‘Super User Do’ allowing programs to execute with root user (super user) or other specified user account privileges.

apt-get

‘apt’ refers to the “Advanced Package Tool” while ‘apt-get’ retrieves software packages used for installation and upgrades to existing software.

dpkg -list

lists all currently installed packages.

sudo apt-get update

Retrieves information concerning what updates are available to currently installed packages from online sources.

sudo apt-get upgrade

Installs all available upgrades for currently installed packages from online sources.

sudo apt-get install

Used to install a package from an online source.

sudo apt-cache search [package name]

Searches for available packages from online sources.

sudo apt-get remove

Uninstalls an installed software package without purging the configuration, plugins, and settings.

sudo apt-get purge

Removes an installed software package including its configuration, plugins, and settings.

sudo apt-get autoremove

Clears packages previously installed as dependencies that are no longer required by currently installed software.

File Commands

ls

‘ls’ references “list,” and is used to list the files and folders within a directory.

ls-al

Shows a long listing of the files and folders within a directory.

cd

‘cd’ references “change directory,” and is used to switch the working directory you’re operating in.

cd dir

Changes directory to a specific location on your storage.

pwd

‘pwd’ references “Print Work Directory” and provides you the full pathname of the current working directory.

mkdir [dir]

‘mkdir’ references “Make Directory” and using the command ‘mkdir dir’ create a directory in the place of “dir” according to the name used, in the working directory.

rm [file]

‘rm’ references “Remove” and executes the removal of the file specified.

rm -r dir

‘-r’ references “Recursive Mode” and removes a directory and all of its contents.

rm -f [file]

‘-f’ references “Forced” and forcibly removes a file regardless of its permissions.

rm -rf [dir]

Removes a directory and all of its contents regardless of the individual file permissions.

cp [file1] [file2]

‘cp’ refers to “Copy” and using this command copies one file to a file of a different name, leaving the original intact and creating the new file.

mv [file1] [file2]

‘mv’ refers to “Move” and using this command moves one file to a file of a different name (and place if specified,) the original is not retained but rather literally moved to the new filename and location.

Ubuntu Shortcut Keys

SUPER Key (Windows Button) Opens Activities Search
CTRL + ALT + T Open Terminal
SUPER + L or CTRL + ALT + L Lock Screen
SUPER + D or CTRL + ALT +D Show Desktop
SUPER +A Show Application Menu
SUPER + TAB Switch Between Running Applications
SUPER + ARROW KEYS Snap Windows To Given Direction
SUPER + M Toggle Tray Notification
SUPER + SPACEBAR Change Input Keyboard (Multiple Languages)
ALT + F2 Quick Command Console for Power Users
CTRL + Q or CTRL + W Close Application
CTRL + ALT + ARROW Key Move Through Workspaces
CTRL + ALT + DEL Log Out
ALT + ESC Quick Switch Between Two Applications
SUPER + V Notification list
CTRL + A Select All
CTRL + X Cut
CTRL + C Copy
CTRL + V Paste
CTRL + Z Undo Last
PRNT SCRN Screenshot
ALT + PRNT SCRN Screenshot Active Window
SHIFT + PRNT SCRN Screenshot Screen Area (Drag-and-Drop)
CTRL + ALT + SHIFT + R Start and Stop Screencast Recording

 

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